Among the measures that could be covered by these vertical agreement bans are horizontal agreements which, by their nature, are more likely to fall under Chapter I or Article 101 prohibitions than vertical agreements. These are essentially agreements between competitors and, as such, it is important to ensure that these agreements do not have anti-competitive effects. In some cases, they may be considered an agreement, which can result in criminal sanctions. Some horizontal agreements may be covered by certain exemptions by category, such as the category exemption for specialization agreements, the category exemption for technology transfers, and the exemption for R and R groups. D, provided the agreement is covered by the criteria of exemption by category concerned. In addition, the European Commission has presented guidelines for horizontal agreements. Horizontal agreements are restrictive agreements between competitors operating at the same level of the production and distribution chain. Horizontal agreements that, directly or indirectly, result in or are likely to have the effect of preventing, distorting or restricting competition are in themselves violations. Section 4 of the Competition Protection Act 4054 (the “Competition Act”) prohibits them directly. In order to qualify for the category exemption from the vertical agreement, the agreement must be a vertical agreement or a concerted practice between at least two companies dealing with the terms of purchase, sale or resale of services or goods. The parties must operate at different levels of the production, supply and distribution chain within the meaning of the specific agreement. The class exemption does not apply where the agreement is between competing firms, unless competition is the result of only activities outside the agreement.

agreement between the actual definition or definition of potential competitors, i.e. companies operating at the same level of the production or distribution chain. B and which include research and development, production, purchasing or marketing. Horizontal agreements can restrict competition, particularly when they involve price fixing or market-sharing measures, or when the definition of market economy services resulting from horizontal cooperation has negative market effects in terms of price, production, innovation or product diversity and quality. On the other hand, horizontal cooperation can be a way to share risks, reduce costs, pool know-how and accelerate innovation. For small and medium-sized enterprises in particular, cooperation can be an important means of adapting to the changing market. See the `horizontal guidelines`: guidelines on the applicability of Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to horizontal cooperation agreements (OJ L 199 of 11.12.2001, p. 1). OJ C 11, 14.1.2011, p. 1-72). With regard to vertical agreements, the main exemption by EU category is the category exemption for vertical agreements, which excludes many vertical agreements from the prohibitions covered in Chapter I and Article 101 (see exemption by category for vertical agreements). The European Commission has published guidelines on vertical restrictions to determine when an agreement should be exempt from the bans in Chapter I or Article 101.

In general, vertical restrictions are less anti-competitive than horizontal restrictions. Horizontal agreements are agreements between two or more parties operating at the same level of the production, supply and distribution chain, . B between two suppliers or two retailers. Joint sales agreements, joint sales agreements, specialization agreements, and R and D concluded between competing companies are examples of this.


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