He also took it as a paradigm to understand the power relations between capitalists and salaried workers in his day: “In pre-capitalist systems, it was obvious that most people did not control their own destiny – for example, under feudalism, serfs had to work for their masters. Capitalism seems different because people are theoretically free to work for themselves or for others, as they wish. Yet most workers have as little control over their lives as feudal serfs. [44] Some later Marxist theorists (z.B. Eric Wolf) used this label to include non-European societies that fuse feudalism with Chinese and pre-Columbian imperial societies as “inflows.” In the 20th century, two exceptional historians offered even different perspectives. The French historian Marc Bloch, arguably the most influential medieval historian of the 20th century,[43] approached feudalism not so much from a legal and military point of view as from a sociological point of view, being part of The Felidicity (1939); English 1961) a feudal order that is not limited to the nobility. It was his radical idea that the peasants were part of the feudal relationship that distinguishes Bloch from his peers: while the vassal was doing military service in exchange for the fiefdom, the peasant was doing physical work in exchange for the protection of the dense – both are a form of feudal relationship. According to Bloch, other elements of society can be seen in feudal terms; all aspects of life were centered on “domination,” and so we can usefully talk about a feudal ecclesiastical structure, feudal (and anti-court) literature, and a feudal economy. [43] Felony – In feudal law, any serious violation of the feudal treaty between The Lord and Vassal. Subsequently, it was extended in the common law to include any crime against the king`s peace and meant any serious crime The term feudal was also applied to non-Western societies, where institutions and attitudes similar to those of medieval Europe are perceived as predominant (see feudal examples). Japan has been the subject of a thorough review in this regard. [49] Friday notes that in the 21st century, historians in Japan rarely invoke feudalism; Instead of studying similarities, specialists who attempt comparative analysis focus on fundamental differences. [50] In the end, critics say, the many ways in which the term feudalism was used took away some meaning, which led some historians and political theorists to dismiss it as a useful concept for understanding society.

[43] In its origin, the feudal granting of land had been seen as a personal approach between the Lord and the vassals, but with time and the transformation of fiefdoms into hereditary possessions, the nature of the system was considered a form of “politics of the earth” (a term used by historian Marc Bloch). In the 11th century, france was seen as what historians called a “feudal revolution” or “transformation” and a “fragmentation of powers” (Bloch) different from the development of feudalism in England or Italy or Germany in the same period or later:[30] The counties and duchy began to break into smaller possessions when castles and small lords took control of local countries, and (as the comital families had done before them), the small masters contracted/privatized a wide range of prerogatives and rights of the state, in particular the highly professional rights of justice, but also travel taxes, market fees, forest royalties , the obligations of use of the Lord`s mill, etc.[31] (what Georges Duby collectively called “the “mundane lordship” .

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