First publication on the occasion of the 120th anniversary of the Anglo-Kuwait Agreement of 1899 The origin of the city of Kuwait – and the state of Kuwait – is usually placed in the early 18th century, when the Bana (Bana) Utb, a group of families of the Anizah tribe within the Arabian Peninsula, emigrated to the area that is now Kuwait. The founding of the autonomous sheikh of Kuwait dates back to 1756, when the settlers decided to appoint a sheikh of the “Ab” family. In the 19th century, Kuwait became a thriving independent trading community. Towards the end of the century, a ruler, Abd Allh II (ruled by e1866-92), began to bring Kuwait closer to the Ottoman Empire, although he never placed his country under Ottoman rule. This trend was reversed with the accession of mubérak of the Great, who came to power by murdering his brother Abd Allh – an unusual act of political violence in Kuwait. Ottoman threats to instil Kuwait prompted Mubérak to maintain close relations with Britain. A treaty of 1899 essentially gave the United Kingdom control over Kuwait`s foreign policy. After the outbreak of the First World War (1914-18), Kuwait became a British protectorate. In practice, Kuwait has enjoyed such independence over the past two years. Yesterday, British protection was officially withdrawn under the Anglo-Kuwait Agreement of 1899; The treaty was repealed in an exchange of letters between the sovereign of Kuwait and the president of British politics. This development had rendered obsolete the Treaty of 1899, under which Britain took control of Kuwait`s external relations and pledged not to receive representatives of other powers or to cede its territory without the prior approval of the British government. The 1899 treaty was followed by a series of minor agreements that consolidated Britain`s role in the country, including the management of its pearl and oil resources. In the following years, Britain thwarted several Ottoman attempts to re-establish its control over Kuwait through both diplomatic and military efforts.
In 1904, Captain S.G. Knox was appointed the first British resident of Kuwait. The status of these contracts was then confirmed by the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913.  The Anglo-Kuwaiti Agreement of 1899 was a secret treaty between the British Empire and the Sheikh of Kuwait on 23 January 1899. In accordance with its provisions, Britain is committed to protecting Kuwait`s territorial integrity in exchange for limiting foreign powers` access to the sheikh and regulating its internal affairs. The Sheikh of Kuwait () was a sheikh who, under Sabah I.bin Jaber, became independent from the emirate of Khalidi of Al Hasa in 1752. The sheikh became a British protectorate between 1899 and 1961, after the signing of the 1899 Anglo-Kuwait Agreement between Sheikh Mubarak Al-Sabah and the British government in India due to threats against Kuwait`s independence from the Ottoman Empire. The border between Najd and Kuwait was finally established by the Uqair Protocol of 1922.